|Automatic translation||Updated June 01, 2013|
Homo Neanderthalensis, or Neanderthal man lived in Europe and Asia, there are about 250 000 years and disappeared, there are about 28 000 years. Since the 1960s, archaeologists and paleoanthropologists have uncovered clues that show to be robust with a large brain and well adapted to its environment. This is the first "human species" disappeared. Neanderthal man was discovered in the Neander Valley (Neandertal) located between Düsseldorf and Wuppertal in Germany. It is in the cave Feldhofer in August 1856, workers discovered bones and a skull fragment, while they exploit a quarry. Charles Darwin published his theory on the origin of species by natural selection, in 1859.
Maybe they have a common ancestor Homo erectus who lived 500,000 years ago.
Image: Since time immemorial, human beings try to ward off theirs fear of death and infinite space, explaining the world around them by the actions of spirits and gods.
Miscegenation between Neanderthals and modern humans
Interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans, is accurate. Anthropologists have discovered further evidence of interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans. The study, co-authored by Sylvana Condemi the University of Aix-Marseille, was published in Plos One, March 27, 2013. These are the bones of a Neanderthal exposed to the Natural History Museum of Verona who made this conclusion. Mandible 35,000 years old, discovered in 1957 in a cave Riparo Mezzena Italian was analyzed by anthropologists to conclude that miscegenation between modern humans and Neanderthals. Anthropologists have first verified that it really belonged to a Neanderthal mandible and this has all the morphological characteristics of Neanderthals. The researchers then managed the feat of extracting collagen of the mandible to analyze mitochondrial DNA. These genetic molecules are transmitted exclusively by the mother and they show that they do indeed belong to a Neanderthal.
However it seems that the Neanderthal chin has a kinship with that of Homo sapiens, especially as at the same time modern humans existed and some lived not far from the site of the discovery, just 20 km from the Fumane cave. Other discoveries Neanderthal jaws everywhere in Europe also show that singular similarity chin. The hybridization between the two bipeds are more and more precise since 2010 when a team of researchers (Max Planck institute for Evolutionary Anthropology) showed that 4% of the human genome was identical to Neanderthals.
Image: Comparison of a skull of modern man (left) and a Neanderthal man (right) from the Natural History Museum in Cleveland.
Speciation by distance
The ancestors of the Neanderthals came from Africa.
Geographic variations favor, from a single ancestral species, genetic drift, and differences of evolution can lead to speciation of two different species. This is why, most populations of Neanderthals are the West and they have more pronounced Neanderthal characters. The study of ancient DNA does not explain the observed differences between Neanderthals and modern humans. To understand the difficulty to explain the slow evolution of human traits, just imagine the migration, for tens of thousands of years, populations in territories where other people are already living. When a population migrates over a wide area, it met people who have characteristics more marked (speciation by distance), as and when they will move deeper into the territory. If early interbreeding is possible, little by little differentiation reached such a degree that hybridization is possible between the two groups.