Where is the geostationary orbit?
|Automatic translation||Updated June 22, 2014|
The geostationary orbit is an orbit in the equatorial plane of the Earth at 35,796 km altitude. Moreover, its orbital eccentricity is zero, which means that it is perfectly circular. This particular case geosynchronous orbit allows an artificial satellite « remain motionless » on the vertical equator at a fixed position relative to any point on the surface of the planet.
The position of satellites "geostationary" is managed by the International Telecommunication Union. This orbit is relatively encumbered, satellites at the end of life must leave their room for new satellites. Above of the geostationary orbit is a belt 230 km called « disposal orbit » or « dustbin orbit » is the cemetery of satellites at end of life. When a geostationary satellite is no longer active it is sent to this orbit. Geostationary satellites revolve on themselves at a speed of 100 revolutions per minute.
Image: geostationary satellites are mainly telecommunications satellites, television broadcasting, observation and meteorological satellites. They are at 35 796 km altitude and have a fixed position relative to the surface of the Earth, their altitude allows "to see" more than one third of the planet, just three satellites to ensure almost complete coverage of the soil of the planet. The satellites must be separated from each other by at least 0.05 ° longitude, this represents about 36 km.
How to calculate the geostationary orbit?
The geostationary orbit is calculated using the law of universal gravitation, which boils down to:
NB: Excel formula used to calculate the altitude of the satellite in synchronous orbit of the planet:
Image: many active satellites are in geostationary orbit at ≈ 36 000 km altitude on the image 254 satellites (June 2014) draw a perfect circle around the Earth. These are mainly telecommunications satellites, television broadcasting, observation and meteorological satellites. Credit astronoo.com.