|Automatic translation||Updated June 01, 2013|
In the 16th century the Earth has become a planet like the others, in the 19th century, the Sun is a star among billions of stars in the 20 century our Milky Way galaxy is one of billions of galaxies. Why would stop us here in the 21st Century it is possible that our Universe becomes a hyperclusters among billions of others or one Universe in the multiverse...
The Universe evolved in a way which allows conscious entities to appear to notice it. Consequently, of our point of view (of conscious entity in the universe) our universe is only one of the multiple universes which would have been able to exist.
Image: Universes which give birth to the other universes, is an interesting idea but which remain very speculative.
Cosmic microwave background radiation
The discovery of the relic radiation Bottom of the sky, the radiation of low temperature microwaves arriving at the surface of the Earth since all the directions of the cosmos. We so call it because it forms a background to all the sources radio punctual which were detected by radio telescopes. It was detected for the first time by Arno Penzias and Robert W. Wilson, in 1965, in Bell Telephone's laboratories, in New Jersey., regular static load without specific source and residue of the extremely warm conditions which prevailed in the first moments of the universe, allowed to conclude that the Universe, there is 15 billion years, was for a temperature of at least 3000°C. It is Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson ( 1965 ) who discovered the existence of the thorough radiation of the sky to 2,7 K-( 270°C ). This cosmic natural radiation can be found since all the directions of the space.
If we still go back up little in the time, the Universe reaches temperatures of the order of the trillion of degree. In this state it does not consist of nuclei of neutrons and of protons, but a soup of quarks and of gluons. Quarks incur and push away by exchanging gluons as electrons loosen photons in the electromagnetic fields. It is only when the temperature decreases that quarks harmonize to give the neutrons, the protons and the mesons. If we go back up even farther, hundred of second before, we still find fossils.
Image: Radiation of the bottom of the sky: relic microwave in 2.73 K. These fluctuations in density of the order of 1/100 000 show that approximately 380 000 years after Big Bang there were heterogeneous zones in the universe of a size included between 100 and 1000 Mpc.
Matter and antimatter
When physicists create matter in particle accelerators, they also create the same amount of antimatter. Antimatter composed of neutrons, electrons and protons positive negative, is very present in the universe because when matter and antimatter meet both disappear and release a huge amount of energy.
Image: Steps of appearance of strength, the components of our universe today (left) at the beginning (right).
History of the particles
0 s: Big Bang
Image: History of the particles since the creation of our universe.
3 billion photons for 1 atom
It is in the period 10-35 assist that the Universe is Big Unified and that the strength is responsible for 3 fossils. Before this period there was so much matter as antimatter.
If we still go back up in the time to temperatures beyond 10 32 K, we arrive at the limits of the current physics, we have no theory to explain what takes place in this temperature, how works the matter. The theory of relativity and the quantum theory collapse and are even in conflict because the notion of space and of time does not exist any more. We are in front of a wall, a terra incognita. We say that it is the beginning of the Universe because we cannot cross this wall. The universe is an expanding cosmic bubble. This bubble creates a new bubble which produces it the others etc....
Quantities of the other universes which give birth to the other universes, it is an interesting idea but which remain at the moment very speculative. A universe of weak density would not produce galaxy, no star, no atom and no molecule. A universe of strong density would not last enough to allow the hatching of the life. Only the Universes of density equal to the critical density, that is of flat geometry, present conditions favorable to the appearance of the life.
Our essential Universe is plan, isothermal, without rotation and so little entropic. Entropy comes from the Greek back. This is a thermodynamic function. Projected in a turbine, a water of one dam converts the gravitational energy into electrical energy. Later, we will be moving in an electric motor or heat in a radiator. Throughout these changes, energy is degraded in other words, its entropy increases. The total entropy of an isolated system must always increase, its disorder must still growing, it is the second law of thermodynamics.
NB: The Baron Munchausen by poor posture, inexorably he sank in the mud, no aid comes to his rescue. He could only rely on itself, in a last effort, he leaned into his boots and pushed himself off.