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Updated June 13, 2022
  We mostly see with our brain

Image: The "Checker shadow illusion of Adelson" was published by Edward H. Adelson in 1995.
On this chessboard, squares A and B have exactly the same color. This incredible illusion can be checked by clicking on the image.
This illusion of the same color illustrates the cognitive stage well. From a precise image of reality, our brain provides us with a coherent result, corresponding to our knowledge. He interprets the colors, shapes and movements of objects and then modifies or completes the missing elements if necessary to give things a certain coherence. In other words, he wants to see the sensible world as an intelligible world as he conceives it, as he has understood it, as he has been taught. Since birth, seeing is knowledge and our brain is blind until it has learned to see.
Credit: Edward H. Adelson Professor of Vision Science


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