Supernovae are rare events in our Milky Way, about one to three per century, by against the scale of the universe, we observe every day. Supernova SN 2014J is the tenth supernova discovered in January 2014. SN 2014J is in the Cigar Galaxy (Messier 82) to 11.5 million light-years. The astronomer Steve Fossey, University College London accidentally discovered this supernova during a demonstration on the use of the CCD camera on an automated telescopes 0.35 meters Observatory. January 21, 2014, four undergraduate students had the chance to see a star explosion in another galaxy the Milky Way is the serendipNeologism derived from the English serendipity, old Persian Serendip name of Sri Lanka. Definition of Walpole (1754): The act of discovering something by accident and sagacity while you are looking for something else. Definition of Merton (1945): The discovery by luck or wisdom relevant results that are not wanted. It refers to the fact quite common to observe an unexpected given aberrant and capital which provides an opportunity to develop a new theory or extend an existing theory. Definition of Charles Darwin (1953): Quality of seeking something, and having found something else to recognize that what we found is more important than what we wanted. effect.
This supernova is the subject of many observations worldwide, ground-based telescopes such as the Keck telescope in Hawaii, space telescopes like Hubble. The supernova of the Cigar should be bright enough to be visible with binoculars in the northern hemisphere. SN 2014J is relatively close to us, since it is at a distance of 11.5 ± 0.8 million light-years (3.5 ± 0.3 megaparsecs).
This is the closest supernova observed since 2004. This standard candle cosmology will allow astronomers to better understand the evolution of supernovae and study the diffuse clouds of the galaxy M82 traversed by the electromagnetic spectrum of the supernova. These supernovae are used as "standard candles" to determine extragalactic distances. Located 12 million light years, M82 appears high in the sky of spring in the northern hemisphere, north in the direction of the constellation Ursa Major. If it is called the "Cigar Galaxy", this is because of the elliptical shape produced by the oblique inclination of its starry disk.
Galaxies M81 and M82 form a remarkable pair in small telescopes. The two galaxies are close enough as the distance between their centers is only about 150,000 light-years. M82, close to the spectacular spirals M81 is gravitationally affected by its larger neighbor. Tidal forces caused by the gravity of M81, distort this galaxy, it is a process that began there about 100 million years. This strong interaction, accelerates the star formations, compared to the average observed in galaxies. Galaxies M81 and M82, M81 are members of the group are located in the constellation Ursa Major.
The death of a star can be mild or severe, depending on its mass. Below 1.4 times the mass of the Sun, the star fades very slowly in serenity. Between 1.4 and 5 times the mass of the Sun, his agony is much more violent.
Its radius shrinks to 10 km. The final density is enormous, the nuclei of atoms can not resist, the heart of the star becomes a giant nucleus of neutrons. The collapse causes a terrible explosion that will project the upper layers of the star into space, and shine in the sky for months, a supernova. Above 5 times the mass of the Sun, the collapse is extremely violent and fast. This can not be stopped. The heart of the star becomes a black hole.
Supernova SN 2014J is a supernova of Type Ia.
NB: Thermonuclear supernova, or Type Ia supernova, is the integral explosion of a stellar corpse, of white dwarf type. The Chandrasekhar limit has been exceeded (exceeding the electron degeneracy pressure) initiated by the capture of spilled material by a close companion. Supernovae of type II, Ib and Ic are stars at the end of life. Type II supernovae have a spectrum that contains hydrogen, while Ib and Ic supernovae type are stars who have already exhausted their hydrogen so that it does not appear on their spectrum. Type Ic supernovae have also exhausted their helium and does not appear in the spectrum.
NB: The violence of the collapse of a star produces a huge explosion that projects the upper layers of the star into space, playing a key role in the history of life. It was during his supernova explosion the star releases chemicals that were synthesized during its life and during the explosion itself.
These chemicals will travel in the interstellar medium to spread in space. A supernova will extend hundreds of billions of Km, seeding the interstellar medium heavy elements produced during the life of the star and during the explosion. These heavy elements are the building blocks of terrestrial planets like our Earth.
Image: Supernova SN 2014J in the Cigar galaxy (M82). The explosion of the star is shown by the arrow on the right side of this galaxy remarkable for its bright blue disk, webs of shredded clouds and its red flames, light hydrogen. While SN 2014J is dying, in the central regions, young stars are being born. Bright Supernova in M82 Image Credit: Adam Block, Mt. Lemmon SkyCenter, U. Arizona.