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Updated October 24, 2023

Aristotle (384-322 BC), Greek philosopher

Aristotle Greek philosopher

Image: Aristotle, according to Diogenes Laertius, is short, stocky and has small sunken eyes. He has no beard but wears jewelry and fine linen. Aristotle believed that the stars were placed on crystal spheres.

The philosophical characteristics of Aristotle

Aristotle is best known for his philosophical thought.

Aristotle is a realist, he raises the question of the nature of reality, he asserts that reality is independent of the human mind. This means that things exist independently of our perception. Unlike Plato (428 - 348 BC) who affirmed that the most fundamental realities are immaterial forms, which exist in a world separate from the sensible world.
If reality is independent of our perception, how can we know reality?
How can we be sure the table exists if we can't see it?

Aristotle's system of logic is based on syllogisms, the conclusion is deduced from the premises.
Premise 1: All men are mortal.
Premise 2: Socrates is a man.
Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.
This system of logic is still used today.

Aristotle contributed to the organization of knowledge by categorizing areas of knowledge into disciplines such as metaphysics, biology, physics, ethics, logic, etc.

The writings of Aristotle

Aristotle left a considerable legacy in terms of philosophical writings.

The Organon is a collection of works by Aristotle that deals with logic, rhetoric, and the philosophy of language.

Aristotle's writings on natural philosophy and physics cover topics such as metaphysics, philosophy of nature, cosmology, and philosophy of science.

The Nicomachean Ethics is one of Aristotle's best-known treatises on ethics and moral philosophy.

Aristotle's book "Politics" is an exploration of political philosophy, the organization of society and the ideal city.

Aristotle's work "Poetics" deals with the theory of tragedy and poetry.

The transmission of Aristotle's writings to our time took place in ancient and medieval times. Aristotle's works were translated into different languages, notably Arabic in the Middle Ages, which allowed their preservation and dissemination in the Islamic world.

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