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Albert Einstein 1879-1955

 Automatic translation  Automatic translation Updated June 01, 2013

Albert Einstein was born March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Württemberg average city in Germany.
His father, Hermann Einstein, was a small electrochemical plant. His mother, Pauline Koch, was more artistic, with a delicate sense of humor.
She loved playing the piano, especially the piano sonatas of Beethoven. It is this taste for classical music as Albert inherited from his mother.
This art is passionate about music all his life.
The uncle lived with the family, he was an engineer and from him that Albert received the first impulse in mathematics.
At the age of five, his father offered him a pocket compass and the mysterious property of the magnetic needle always pointed in the same direction, made a strong impression to little Albert.
This impression, later led Einstein to think about the mysterious properties of empty space.
At 6 years, Einstein's parents forced him to take violin lessons, but the young Einstein realized that his path lay elsewhere. Throughout his studies, Einstein excelled his classmates in mathematics, but did not like the classical languages.
At 10, Einstein left primary school to enter the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich. "The teachers gave me in elementary school the effect of snakes and the gym, lieutenants." Einstein later said.
After studying at the gym, he left Germany to spend an entrance exam to the Swiss Federal Polytechnic, but it fails at its first attempt.
At the end of his studies, Einstein sought in vain for a job, he must settle for a job as a patent agent. His task was to make an audit of the first inventions filed.
While working at the patent office in Bern, suddenly a thought crossed his mind, "if a person falls freely it does not feel its weight." It was a revelation. This simple thought has produced a deep impression on Einstein, she showed him the way of the theory of gravitation.


He wondered how it would appear the world, if he fell in free fall in an elevator.
At his age he was asking simple questions, such as children and those are the questions that reveal unexpected truths.
For Einstein, like all human conception of the world, time, reality is included in the tree brain. These links allow us to interpret what our senses perceive. The thought grows throughout life but especially in early childhood, until about three years.
At birth the human child is ready to accept all things in his mind is open, print each new discovery of new links in his brain. But as an adult human being is not surprised by what he has seen since childhood, but Einstein has grown so slowly he began to wonder at the age adult and therefore, has dug deeper problems than do children, usually. He had no special talent, he said, I'm just passionately curious.
Actually he was curious and open-minded as a child. Shortly after his arrival in Bern, Einstein married Mileva Maritch, his companion study to Polytechnium.
She was a little older than him. Despite its Greek Orthodox, it was a free-thinking ideas advanced. Albert and Mileva had 2 son.
In 1905, aged 26, he published the results of his research. These results caused such a stir that for physicists in Switzerland, they appeared to conflict with the task assigned to an obscure official of the Patent Office.
Einstein finally realized his dream, he will teach at the University of Zurich in 1909 as a teacher. After World War I, Einstein is the head of an American organization of chemical weapons. In 1933, Einstein is director of Institute of Advanced Science in Princeton, New Jersey. It is in this same city that he died April 18, 1955 at the age of 76.

 Albert Einstein

Image: Albert Einstein, was an analysis of the concept of time. There is no major world clock is what tells his theory. His genius is to have watched the reality with his mind and not with his eyes. Knowledge evolves and changes every time someone a genius, look more deeply a question that seems simple at first.

Mercury and general relativity


In 1855 Le Verrier observed an anomaly in the motion of Mercury. Its perihelion (the point of its orbit nearest the sun) orbits the Sun a little too fast (43 " arc more per century) for calculations. Speaking in advance of the perihelion of Mercury. It is assumed that this anomaly is due to a new planet, as in the case of Uranus with Neptune. Le Verrier calculated the position it should have to account for the anomaly of Mercury and its orbit is expected to be within that of Mercury, very near the Sun. This hypothetical planet has a name: Vulcan. However, despite all efforts to observe astronomical to the predicted position, no one sees it.
At that time it is an observation difficult to achieve as it is to observe a planet very near the Sun. Several explanations have been proposed, the presence of gas, asteroid, but it was not until 1915 that the solution is given by Einstein.
There are no new planet, and as shown Einstein that year, the anomaly comes from the fact that we used Newtonian mechanics to calculate the motion of Mercury, while gravitation must use a another theory, Einstein's General Relativity.


This was the first major success of general relativity.
The difference is very low for the planets furthest from the Sun than Mercury, because the gravitational field is weaker, but it is sufficient in the case of Mercury to lead to the anomaly observed.
The calculations of general relativity naturally lead to good value for the perihelion advance of Mercury.
This advance of the perihelion has since been demonstrated for other planets, Mars, Earth and Venus.

Image: Photo of Mercury passing across the Sun. Among the solar system bodies of significant size, only the Moon, Mercury and Venus can pass the Sun for an observer on Earth. If, in the case of the Moon phenomenon (solar eclipse) is common, it is not the same for Mercury and Venus with the phenomenon of passing before the sun is rare. It is less spectacular than a solar eclipse because the maximum apparent diameter of Mercury is about 1/200th of the Sun and of Venus is about 1/30th.

 Mercury across the sun
Aristotle (-384 -322 av JC)
Ptolemy (90-168)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630)
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel (1738-1822)
Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827)
Caroline Lucretia Herschel (1750-1848)
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846)
Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
John Frederick Herschel (1792-1871)
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
  George Ellery Hale (1868-1938)
Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921)
Willem De Sitter (1872-1934)
Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916)
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
Harlow Shapley (1885-1972)
Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961)
Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953)
Walter Baade (1893-1960)
Bernard Lyot (1897-1952)
Jan Hendrik Oort (1900-1992)
Chandrasekhar (1910-1995)
John Wheeler (1911-2008)
Stanley Miller (1930-2007)
Frank Drake (1930-

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