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 Automatic translation  Automatic translation Category: matter and particles
Updated November 11, 2015
  Quantum field and function of molecular wave

Image: representation of the molecular wave function showing the boundary of atoms in a molecule.
Where does an atom begin and where does it end?
The atom is a field and it is the field lines that define its volume. No one has ever seen the fields of quantum physics, but it might look like this computer image. When the atoms bind together, their fields are deformed, it is this deformation which characterizes the bonds.
The particles of quantum theory are not "little balls" but ripples, fields that have a wavelength. This wavelength represents the size of the particle, and the field, the energy of the particle. Image credit: T.A. Keith.

note: pre-Socratics like Leucippus (5th century BC) and his disciple Democritus (460 − 370 BC), thought that reality was made of atoms and emptiness.
"He (Leucippus) held that all things are limitless and mutually transform into each other, and that the universe is both empty and filled with bodies." (Diogenes Laertius poet and biographer of the 3rd century AD).
  definition of a field

Image: A field can not be represented by an image, however, can be mapped on.

Video: The nucleon field. No optical device allows us to see the bustle of small particles inside a proton or a neutron, but the image layout, same false, is fundamental to understanding the concepts. So in this video, a simulation of the mathematical concept of the nucleon was conducted to allow us to make an intuition of what happens inside protons and neutrons. Credit: 1996 - Jean-François Colonna (Centre de Mathématiques appliquées de l'Ecole Polytechnique et France Télécom).

The wave function is one of the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics.
It corresponds to the representation of the quantum state of a system in an infinite-dimensional basis.
The wave function gives every particle, typical interference properties of a wave.
In classical mechanics we represent the movement by particles which move in space, in quantum mechanics we represent the real and imaginary particles by wavefunctions.
These wave functions corresponding to stationary or non-stationary states (time-dependent) of energy.
In the standard model of particle physics, a hadron is composed of quarks and/or anti-quarks and gluons.
Subatomic particles constituting a hadron are called partons.
Quarks or antiquarks present in the hadron are called valence quarks while the quark-antiquark pairs and gluons that appear and disappear permanently in the hadron, are called virtual particles.
Gluons are the vectors of the strong force that holds quarks together.
Bosons are subatomic particles that transmit information different forces or interactions. Bosons are social particles, they like to mix, like light which mixes with the light, the photons are bosons.
The photon is the particle mediator the electromagnetic interaction.
The gluon is the messenger of the strong nuclear force, it confines quarks binding together very strongly.
Bosons Z 0 and W ± are the gauge bosons of the weak interaction.
The two categories of the nature of the particles are fermions and bosons.
In particle physics, the model of partons was proposed by Richard Feynman in 1969 to describe the structure of hadrons (protons, neutrons) and model the interactions with hadrons of high energy.
Partons are quarks, antiquarks and gluons that make up hadrons.
Quarks present in the hadron throughout its existence are called valence quarks, the opposite of virtual particles (quark-antiquark pairs and gluons) that appear and disappear permanently in the hadron. Gluons are the vectors of the strong force that holds quarks together.
A hadron is a compound of partons, subatomic particles governed by the strong interaction.
Fermions are subatomic particles (electrons, neutrinos and quarks) of the matter.
All matter that makes up the objects around us are made of fermions. Fermions are asocial particles, in other words they refuse to reduce their living space, this is why the matter is not compressible and that we can walk on the floor.
The two categories of nature particles are fermions and bosons.
The Hilbert space, David Hilbert (1862 - 1943), is a vector space equipped with a scalar product for measuring lengths and angles.
Hilbert space generalizes the notion of classical Euclidean space (two-dimensional plane and three-dimensional space) to spaces of any dimension, finite or infinite.
The Hilbert space is an abstract mathematical concept which allows to apply the techniques of mathematical analysis to all spaces. These techniques are used in theories of equations partial derivative, in quantum mechanics, Fourier analysis, thermodynamics.

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