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Updated June 01, 2013
In the 16th century the Earth has become a planet like the others, in the 19th century, the Sun is a star among billions of stars in the 20 century our Milky Way galaxy is one of billions of galaxies. Why would stop us here in the 21st Century it is possible that our Universe becomes a hyperclusters among billions of others or one Universe in the multiverse ...
The universe is an expanding cosmic bubble. This bubble creates a new bubble which produces it the others etc....
Quantities of the other universes which give birth to the other universes, it is an interesting idea but which remain at the moment very speculative. If we observe the universe such as we know it, it is above all, because we are there. It is what we call the anthropic principle from Greek " anthropos " which means man. Idea according to which the universe was exactly adjusted very for the emergence of the life and the consciousness. , it is a metaphysical principle. But any theory which includes our existence, and it will be certainly those on the world such as we conceive it, must inevitably be coherent with our own existence.
So, the development of the universe must be ordered to explain our own appearance, this is the argument of proponents of the anthropic principle.
The Universe evolved in a way which allows conscious entities to appear to notice it. Consequently, of our point of view (of conscious entity in the universe) our universe is only one of the multiple universes which would have been able to exist. nota: Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy and theology, which focuses on research into the causes, first principles. It puts the knowledge of the absolute being, as the first cause, the cause of the universe and of the nature of the mater.
There is nothing improbable in posteriori that the other universes exist. We were in the habit so for a long time of observing the world since an outside eye that we neglected that we are inside. However our Universe is unique because we cannot compare it with the other universes. Consider as real physical objects of the existing hypothetical universes beyond ours but with which we cannot establish the slightest contact is pure mystification. The field of the physics limits itself to the domain of the experiment and beyond, it is about metaphysics.
Image: Universes which give birth to the other universes, is an interesting idea but which remain very speculative.
Cosmic microwave background radiation
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The discovery of the relic radiation Bottom of the sky, the radiation of low temperature microwaves arriving at the surface of the Earth since all the directions of the cosmos. We so call it because it forms a background to all the sources radio punctual which were detected by radio telescopes. It was detected for the first time by Arno Penzias and Robert W. Wilson, in 1965, in Bell Telephone's laboratories, in New Jersey., regular static load without specific source and residue of the extremely warm conditions which prevailed in the first moments of the universe, allowed to conclude that the Universe, there is 15 billion years, was for a temperature of at least 3000°C. It is Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson ( 1965 ) who discovered the existence of the thorough radiation of the sky to 2,7 K-( 270°C ). This cosmic natural radiation can be found since all the directions of the space.
Are we to go back up at the beginning of the Universe?
It is in these conditions that the Universe passes from an opaque state to a transparent, that is brilliant state. But what happens beyond this period?
The Universe being opaque we can see nothing. Fortunately there are the other fossils. Another fossil, it is the relative abundance of certain elements (Helium, Hydrogen, heavy Lithium). The physicists arrived at the conclusion that the Universe was at some point for a temperature of at least 10 billion degrees. This period is situated 1 million years before the passage in the transparent state (3 000 °).
If we still go back up little in the time, the Universe reaches temperatures of the order of the trillion of degree. In this state it does not consist of nuclei of neutrons and of protons, but a soup of quarks and of gluons. Quarks incur and push away by exchanging gluons as electrons loosen photons in the electromagnetic fields. It is only when the temperature decreases that quarks harmonize to give the neutrons, the protons and the mesons. If we go back up even farther, hundred of second before, we still find fossils.
For example the number of photons with regard to the number of atoms is 3 billions.
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Image: Radiation of the bottom of the sky: relic microwave in 2.73 K. These fluctuations in density of the order of 1/100 000 show that approximately 380 000 years after Big Bang there were heterogeneous zones in the universe of a size included between 100 and 1000 Mpc.
Matter and antimatter
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When physicists create matter in particle accelerators, they also create the same amount of antimatter. Antimatter composed of neutrons, electrons and protons positive negative, is very present in the universe because when matter and antimatter meet both disappear and release a huge amount of energy.
The electron charge is exactly identical to that of the proton is composed of three quarks, i.e. the electron charge is strictly equal to three quarks.
The electron reacts to the electromagnetic force and ignores the nuclear force, but react to the two quarks.
Is the temperature of 1028 degrees Celsius, the physicists found an explanation to certain questions. Their constant concern is to find a single theory that responds to different situations, hence the determination to unify the forces.
In the 19th century the thermal force and dynamic force were unified in a theory, thermodynamics.
Similarly the electric force and magnetic force were unified to explain the electromagnetic force.
Today the 4 remaining forces are unified, nuclear force, electromagnetic force, weak force and the force of gravity. These four forces are probably different manifestations of a single force.
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Image: Steps of appearance of strength, the components of our universe today (left) at the beginning (right).
0 s: Big Bang
10-43s: Quantum gravity. All interactions are equal. All particles coexist in equal proportions. Severity appeared. Is the Planck wall. The observable Universe today has a diameter of 10-35 meters.
10-36s: is the separation of the nuclear force.
10-35s: Grand Unification, inflation period.
10-33s: Antimatter disappears.
10-11s: Bosons W and Z ° do not appear spontaneously, it is the separation of the electromagnetic force-low.
10-6s: Quarks are confined in protons and neutrons.
100 s: Nucleosynthesis primitive H, D, He, Li Training hydrogen, helium, deuterium and lithium.
3,8x105 y: Decoupling light and matter, the primordial soup releases electromagnetic waves, the universe becomes transparent. The photons are moving from within their universe. The trace of this event is the cosmological diffuse radiation detected in 1965.
109 y: First stars, proto-galaxies. The first stars appeared 400 million years after the Big Bang.
3x109 y: Nuclei of galaxies, quasars.
5x109 y: Galactic discs.
10x109 y: Solar system formation.
15x109 y: Today, life, evolution.
Image: History of the particles since the creation of our universe.
3 billion photons for 1 atom
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It is in the period 10-35 assist that the Universe is Big Unified and that the strength is responsible for 3 fossils. Before this period there was so much matter as antimatter.
Quarks could be transformed into neutrons or into protons what explains that quarks and electrons have identical loads. In this period there is a quite small supplement of matter.
The matter and the antimatter meet and create all the light. What it remains today it is the light and a residue of matter, 1 particle of matter for 3 billion particles of light.
If we still go back up in the time to temperatures beyond 10 32 K, we arrive at the limits of the current physics, we have no theory to explain what takes place in this temperature, how works the matter. The theory of relativity and the quantum theory collapse and are even in conflict because the notion of space and of time does not exist any more. We are in front of a wall, a terra incognita. We say that it is the beginning of the Universe because we cannot cross this wall. The universe is an expanding cosmic bubble. This bubble creates a new bubble which produces it the others etc....
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Quantities of the other universes which give birth to the other universes, it is an interesting idea but which remain at the moment very speculative. A universe of weak density would not produce galaxy, no star, no atom and no molecule. A universe of strong density would not last enough to allow the hatching of the life. Only the Universes of density equal to the critical density, that is of flat geometry, present conditions favorable to the appearance of the life.
Our essential Universe is plan, isothermal, without rotation and so little entropic. Entropy comes from the Greek back. This is a thermodynamic function. Projected in a turbine, a water of one dam converts the gravitational energy into electrical energy. Later, we will be moving in an electric motor or heat in a radiator. Throughout these changes, energy is degraded in other words, its entropy increases. The total entropy of an isolated system must always increase, its disorder must still growing, it is the second law of thermodynamics.
The question which remains opened is: at what impulse obeyed the Big Bang?
Who was there before the Big Bang?
Cosmologists invoke the effect of "Bootstrap", after the misadventure of Baron Münchhaussen.
nota: The Baron Munchausen by poor posture, inexorably he sank in the mud, no aid comes to his rescue. He could only rely on itself, in a last effort, he leaned into his boots and pushed himself off.